You can embed Csound in PD via the external object csound6~1 which has been written by Victor Lazzarini. This external is either part of the Csound distribution or can be built from the sources at https://github.com/csound/csound_pd . In the examples folder of this repository you can also find all the .csd and .pd files of this chapter.
On Ubuntu Linux, you can install the csound6~ via the Synaptic Package Manager. Just look for "csound6~" or "pd-csound", check "install", and your system will install the library at the appropriate location. If you build Csound from sources, go to https://github.com/csound/csound_pd and follow the build instructions. Once it is compiled, the object will appear as csound6~.pd_linux and should be copied (together with csound6~-help.pd) to /usr/lib/pd/extra, so that PD can find it. If not, add it to PD's search path (File->Path...).
On Mac OSX, you find the csound6~ external in the following path:
The help file is
Put these files in a folder which is in PD's search path. For PD-extended, it is by default ~/Library/Pd. But you can put it anywhere. Just make sure that the location is specified in PD's Preferences > Path... menu.
On Windows, while installing Csound, open up the "Front ends" component in the Installer box and make sure the item "csound6~" is checked:
After having finished the installation, you will find csound6~.dll in the csound/bin folder. Copy this file into the pd/extra folder, or in any other location in PD's search path. Due to the dependencies in Csound 6, you may find that it works better to add the Csound/bin directory to the search paths in Pd's Preferences window.
Note for Csound 6.07 for Windows: As it is build for 64bit architecture, but PD does not fully support the 64 bit CPU architecture with loadable objects at this time, the Windows installer currently comes without the csound6~ external. Use 6.06 or earlier versions until a solution is found.
Once you have installed the "csound6~" extension on any platform, and included the file in PD's search path if necessary, you should be able to call the csound6~ object in PD. Just open a PD window, put a new object, and type in "csound6~":
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 2^10, 10, 1 instr 1 kFreq invalue "freq" kAmp invalue "amp" aSin oscili kAmp, kFreq, giSine outs aSin, aSin endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 10000 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
Save this file under the name "control.csd". Save a PD window in the same folder and create the following patch:
Note that for invalue channels, you first must register these channels by a "set" message.
As you see, the first two outlets of the csound6~ object are the signal outlets for the audio channels 1 and 2. The third outlet is an outlet for control data (not used here, see below). The rightmost outlet sends a bang when the score has been finished.
Audio streams from PD can be received in Csound via the inch opcode. The number of audio inlets created in the csound6~ object will depend on the number of input channels used in the Csound orchestra. The following .csd uses two audio inputs:
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 instr 1 aL inch 1 aR inch 2 kcfL randomi 100, 1000, 1; center frequency kcfR randomi 100, 1000, 1; for band pass filter aFiltL butterbp aL, kcfL, kcfL/10 aoutL balance aFiltL, aL aFiltR butterbp aR, kcfR, kcfR/10 aoutR balance aFiltR, aR outch 1, aoutL outch 2, aoutR endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 10000 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
The corresponding PD patch is extremely simple:
The csound6~ object receives MIDI data via the keyword "midi". Csound is able to trigger instrument instances in receiving a "note on" message, and turning them off in receiving a "note off" message (or a note-on message with velocity=0). So this is a very simple way to build a synthesizer with arbitrary polyphonic output:
This is the corresponding midi.csd. It must contain the options -+rtmidi=null -M0 in the <CsOptions> tag. It is an FM synth in which the modulation index is defined according to the note velocity. The harder a key is truck, the higher the index of modulation will be; and therefore a greater number of stronger partials will be created. The ratio is calculated randomly between two limits, which can be adjusted.
<CsOptions> -+rtmidi=null -M0 </CsOptions> <CsoundSynthesizer> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 2^10, 10, 1 instr 1 iFreq cpsmidi ;gets frequency of a pressed key iAmp ampmidi 8;gets amplitude and scales 0-8 iRatio random .9, 1.1; ratio randomly between 0.9 and 1.1 aTone foscili .1, iFreq, 1, iRatio/5, iAmp+1, giSine; fm aEnv linenr aTone, 0, .01, .01; avoiding clicks at the end of a note outs aEnv, aEnv endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 36000; play for 10 hours e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
Score events can be sent from PD to Csound by a message with the keyword event. You can send any kind of score events, like instrument calls or function table statements. The following example triggers Csound's instrument 1 whenever you press the message box on the top. Different sounds can be selected by sending f events (building/replacing a function table) to Csound.
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 seed 0; each time different seed giSine ftgen 1, 0, 2^10, 10, 1; function table 1 instr 1 iDur random 0.5, 3 p3 = iDur iFreq1 random 400, 1200 iFreq2 random 400, 1200 idB random -18, -6 kFreq linseg iFreq1, iDur, iFreq2 kEnv transeg ampdb(idB), p3, -10, 0 aTone oscili kEnv, kFreq, 1 outs aTone, aTone endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 36000; play for 10 hours e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
If you want Csound to give any sort of control data to PD, you can use the opcodes outvalue or chnset. You will receive this data at the second outlet from the right of the csound6~ object. The data are sent as a list with two elements. The name of the control channel is the first element, and the value is the second element. You can get the values by a route object or by a send/receive chain. This is a simple example:
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 instr 1 ktim times kphas phasor 1 outvalue "time", ktim outvalue "phas", kphas*127 endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 30 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
A PD array can be sent directly to Csound, and a Csound function table to PD. The message tabset [tabset array-name ftable-number] copies a PD array into a Csound function table. The message tabget [tabget array-name ftable-number] copies a Csound function table into a PD array. The example below should explain everything. Just choose another soundfile instead of "stimme.wav".
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> -odac </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 1 0dbfs = 1 giCopy ftgen 1, 0, -88200, 2, 0 ;"empty" table giFox ftgen 2, 0, 0, 1, "fox.wav", 0, 0, 1 opcode BufPlay1, a, ipop ifn, ispeed, iskip, ivol xin icps = ispeed / (ftlen(ifn) / sr) iphs = iskip / (ftlen(ifn) / sr) asig poscil3 ivol, icps, ifn, iphs xout asig endop instr 1 itable = p4 aout BufPlay1 itable out aout endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 99999 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer> ;example by joachim heintz
Make sure that the Csound vector size given by the ksmps value, is not larger than the internal PD vector size. It should be a power of 2. I would recommend starting with ksmps=8. If there are performance problems, try to increase this value to 16, 32, or 64, i.e. ascending powers of 2.
The csound6~ object runs by default if you turn on audio in PD. You can stop it by sending a "run 0" message, and start it again with a "run 1" message.
You can recompile the .csd file of a csound6~ object by sending a "reset" message.
By default, you see all the messages of Csound in the PD window. If you do not want to see them, send a "message 0" message. "message 1" re-enables message printing.
If you want to open a new .csd file in the csound6~ object, send the message "open", followed by the path of the .csd file you want to load.
A "rewind" message rewinds the score without recompilation. The message "offset", followed by a number, offsets the score playback by that number of seconds.
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