You can embed Csound in PD via the external object csound6~1 which has been written by Victor Lazzarini. This external is either part of the Csound distribution or can be built from the sources at https://github.com/csound/csound_pd . In the examples folder of this repository you can also find all the .csd and .pd files of this chapter.
On Ubuntu Linux, you can install the csound6~ via the Synaptic Package Manager. Just look for "csound6~" or "pd-csound", check "install", and your system will install the library at the appropriate location. If you build Csound from sources, go to https://github.com/csound/csound_pd and follow the build instructions. Once it is compiled, the object will appear as csound6~.pd_linux and should be copied (together with csound6~-help.pd) to /usr/lib/pd/extra, so that PD can find it. If not, add it to PD's search path (File->Path...).
On Mac OSX, you find the csound6~ external, help file and examples in https://github.com/csound/csound_pd/releases
(Prior to 6.11, it was in /Library/Frameworks/CsoundLib64.framework/Versions/6.0/Resources/PD.)
Put these files in a folder which is in PD's search path. For PD-extended, it is by default ~/Library/Pd. But you can put it anywhere. Just make sure that the location is specified in PD's Preferences > Path... menu.
On Windows, you find the csound6~ external, help file and examples in https://github.com/csound/csound_pd/releases
For older versions of Csound, the csound6~ object was included in the installer. The description is left here for the case that someone needs to install one of these older versions:
<<while installing Csound, open up the "Front ends" component in the Installer box and make sure the item "csound6~" is checked:
After having finished the installation, you will find csound6~.dll in the csound/bin folder. Copy this file into the pd/extra folder, or in any other location in PD's search path. Due to the dependencies in Csound 6, you may find that it works better to add the Csound/bin directory to the search paths in Pd's Preferences window.
Note for Csound 6.07 for Windows: As it is build for 64bit architecture, but PD does not fully support the 64 bit CPU architecture with loadable objects at this time, the Windows installer currently comes without the csound6~ external. Use 6.06 or earlier versions until a solution is found.>>
Once you have installed the "csound6~" extension on any platform, and included the file in PD's search path if necessary, you should be able to call the csound6~ object in PD. Just open a PD window, put a new object, and type in "csound6~":
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 2^10, 10, 1 instr 1 kFreq invalue "freq" kAmp invalue "amp" aSin oscili kAmp, kFreq, giSine outs aSin, aSin endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 10000 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
Save this file under the name "control.csd". Save a PD window in the same folder and create the following patch:
Note that for invalue channels, you first must register these channels by a "set" message. The usage of chnget is easier; a simple example can be found in this example in the csound6~ repository.
As you see, the first two outlets of the csound6~ object are the signal outlets for the audio channels 1 and 2. The third outlet is an outlet for control data (not used here, see below). The rightmost outlet sends a bang when the score has been finished.
Audio streams from PD can be received in Csound via the inch opcode. The number of audio inlets created in the csound6~ object will depend on the number of input channels used in the Csound orchestra. The following .csd uses two audio inputs:
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 instr 1 aL inch 1 aR inch 2 kcfL randomi 100, 1000, 1; center frequency kcfR randomi 100, 1000, 1; for band pass filter aFiltL butterbp aL, kcfL, kcfL/10 aoutL balance aFiltL, aL aFiltR butterbp aR, kcfR, kcfR/10 aoutR balance aFiltR, aR outch 1, aoutL outch 2, aoutR endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 10000 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
The corresponding PD patch is extremely simple:
The csound6~ object receives MIDI data via the keyword "midi". Csound is able to trigger instrument instances in receiving a "note on" message, and turning them off in receiving a "note off" message (or a note-on message with velocity=0). So this is a very simple way to build a synthesizer with arbitrary polyphonic output:
This is the corresponding midi.csd. It must contain the options -+rtmidi=null -M0 in the <CsOptions> tag. It is an FM synth in which the modulation index is defined according to the note velocity. The harder a key is truck, the higher the index of modulation will be; and therefore a greater number of stronger partials will be created. The ratio is calculated randomly between two limits, which can be adjusted.
<CsOptions> -+rtmidi=null -M0 </CsOptions> <CsoundSynthesizer> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 giSine ftgen 0, 0, 2^10, 10, 1 instr 1 iFreq cpsmidi ;gets frequency of a pressed key iAmp ampmidi 8;gets amplitude and scales 0-8 iRatio random .9, 1.1; ratio randomly between 0.9 and 1.1 aTone foscili .1, iFreq, 1, iRatio/5, iAmp+1, giSine; fm aEnv linenr aTone, 0, .01, .01; avoiding clicks at the end of a note outs aEnv, aEnv endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 36000; play for 10 hours e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
Score events can be sent from PD to Csound by a message with the keyword event. You can send any kind of score events, like instrument calls or function table statements. The following example triggers Csound's instrument 1 whenever you press the message box on the top. Different sounds can be selected by sending f events (building/replacing a function table) to Csound.
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 seed 0; each time different seed giSine ftgen 1, 0, 2^10, 10, 1; function table 1 instr 1 iDur random 0.5, 3 p3 = iDur iFreq1 random 400, 1200 iFreq2 random 400, 1200 idB random -18, -6 kFreq linseg iFreq1, iDur, iFreq2 kEnv transeg ampdb(idB), p3, -10, 0 aTone oscili kEnv, kFreq, 1 outs aTone, aTone endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 36000; play for 10 hours e </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
If you want Csound to pass any control data to PD, you can use the opcode outvalue . You will receive this data at the second outlet from the right of the csound6~ object. The data are sent as a list with two elements. The name of the control channel is the first element, and the value is the second element. You can get the values by a route object or by a send/receive chain. This is a simple example:
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> ;Example by Joachim Heintz sr = 44100 nchnls = 2 0dbfs = 1 ksmps = 8 instr 1 ktim times kphas phasor 1 outvalue "time", ktim outvalue "phas", kphas*127 endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> i 1 0 30 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer>
A PD array can be sent directly to Csound, and a Csound function table to PD. The message tabset [tabset array-name ftable-number] copies a PD array into a Csound function table. The message tabget [tabget array-name ftable-number] copies a Csound function table into a PD array. The example below should explain everything. Just choose another soundfile instead of "stimme.wav".
<CsoundSynthesizer> <CsOptions> -odac </CsOptions> <CsInstruments> sr = 44100 ksmps = 8 nchnls = 1 0dbfs = 1 giCopy ftgen 1, 0, -88200, 2, 0 ;"empty" table giFox ftgen 2, 0, 0, 1, "fox.wav", 0, 0, 1 opcode BufPlay1, a, ipop ifn, ispeed, iskip, ivol xin icps = ispeed / (ftlen(ifn) / sr) iphs = iskip / (ftlen(ifn) / sr) asig poscil3 ivol, icps, ifn, iphs xout asig endop instr 1 itable = p4 aout BufPlay1 itable out aout endin </CsInstruments> <CsScore> f 0 99999 </CsScore> </CsoundSynthesizer> ;example by joachim heintz
Make sure that the Csound vector size given by the ksmps value, is not larger than the internal PD vector size. It should be a power of 2. I would recommend starting with ksmps=8. If there are performance problems, try to increase this value to 16, 32, or 64, i.e. ascending powers of 2.
The csound6~ object runs by default if you turn on audio in PD. You can stop it by sending a "run 0" message, and start it again with a "run 1" message.
You can recompile the .csd file of a csound6~ object by sending a "reset" message.
By default, you see all the messages of Csound in the PD window. If you do not want to see them, send a "message 0" message. "message 1" re-enables message printing.
If you want to open a new .csd file in the csound6~ object, send the message "open", followed by the path of the .csd file you want to load.
A "rewind" message rewinds the score without recompilation. The message "offset", followed by a number, offsets the score playback by that number of seconds.
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